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Syllabus Of Physics
 
For 12th standard (CBSE BOARD)
 
 
 

Unit 1: Electrostatics

 
 

Frictional electricity, charges and their conservation; Coulomb's law-Forces between two point electric charges, Forces between multiple electric charges. Superposition principle and continuous charge distribution.

Electric field and its physical significance, electric field due to a point charge, electric field lines; Electric dipole, electric field due to a dipole and behaviour of dipole in a uniform electric field.

Electric potential –physical meaning, potential difference, electric potential due to a point charge, a dipole and system of charges; Equipotential surfaces, Electrical potential energy of a system of two point charges and of electric dipoles in an electrostatic field.

Electric flux, statement of Gauss's theorem and its applications to find field due to infinitely long straight wire, uniformly charged infinite plane sheet and uniformly charged thin spherical shell.

Conductors and insulators, presence of free charges and bound charges inside a conductor, Dielectrics and electric polarization, general concept of a capacitor and expacitance, combination of capacitors in series and in parallel, energy stored in a capacitor, capacitance of a parallel plate capacitor with and without dielectric medium between the plates; Van de Graff generator.

 
     
 

Unit 2: Current Electricity

 
 

Electric current, flow of electric charges in a metallic conductor, drift velocity and mobility, and their relation with electric current; Ohm's law, electrical resistance, V-I characteristics, Exceptions of Ohm's law (Non-linear V-I characteristics), electrical resistivity and conductivity, classification of materials in terms of conductivity; Superconductivity (elementary idea) ; Carbon resistors, colour code for carbon resistors; combination of resistances0 series and parallel. Temperature dependence of resistance Internal resistance of a cell, Potential difference and emf of a cell, combination of cells in series and in parallel.

Kirchoff's laws- illustration by simple applications, Wheatstone bridge and its applications for temperature measurements, Metre bridge- special case of Wheatstone bridge.

Potentiometer- principle and applications to measure potential difference, and for comparing emf of two cells.

Electric power, thermal effects of current and Joule's law; Chemical effects of current0 Faraday's laws of electrolysis; Electro- chemical cells- Primary and secondary cells, solid states cells.

Thermoelectricity - origin, elementary ideas of See beck effect, Thermocouple, Thermo emf, neutral and inversion temperatures. Measurement of temperature using a thermo couple.

 
     
  Unit 3: Magnetic Effect of Current and Magnetism  
 

Concept of magnetic field, Oersted's experiment, Biot-Savart law, magnetic field due to an infinitely long current carrying straight wire and a circular loop; Ampere's circuit law and its applications to straight and toroidal solenoids; Force on a moving charge in uniform magnetic and electric fields, Cyclotron; Force on current-carrying conductor in a uniform magnetic field. Forces between two parallel current-current-carrying conductors-definition of ampere; Torque experienced by a current loop in a uniform magnetic field, moving coil galvanometer – its current sensitivity and conversion to ammeter and voltmeter.

Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment; Magnetic dipole moment of a revolving electron; Magnetic field intensity due to magnetic dipole (bar magnet) along the axis and perpendicular to the axis; Torque on a magnetic dipole (bar magnet) in a uniform magnetic field; Bar magnet as an equivalent solenoid, Magnetic field lines; Earth's magnetic field and magnetic elements; Para-dia and ferro-magnetic substances with examples, electromagnets and permanent magnets.

 
     
  Unit 4: Electromagnetic Induction Alternating Current  
 

Electromagnetic induction, Faraday's laws, Induced emf and current, Lenz's law, Eddy currents, self and mutual inductance.

Alternating current, peak and rms value of alternating current/voltage, reactance and impedance; LC oscillations, LCR series circuit (Phasor diagram) – Resonant circuits and Q-factor; Power in AC circuits, wattles current.

AC generator and Transformer.

 
     
 

Unit 5: Electromagnetic Waves

 
 

Electromagnetic waves and their characteristics (qualitative ideas only); Hertz's experiment Transverse nature of electromagnetic waves. Electromagnetic spectrum (Radio-microwaves, infra-red, optical, ultravi9olet, X-rays, gamma rays) including elementary facts about their uses; Propagation of electromagnetic waves in atmosphere.

 
     
 

Unit 6 : Optics.

 
 

Refraction of light, total internal reflection and its applications, spherical lenses, thin lens formula, lens maker's formula; Magnification, Power of a lens, combination of thin lenses in contact; Refraction and dispersion of light due to a prism, Scattering of light-Blue colour of the sky and reddish appearance of the sun at sun-rise and sun-set.

Optical instruments-Compound microscope, astronomical telescope (refraction and reflection type ) and their magnifying power.

Wave front and Huygen's principles; Reflection and refraction of plane wave at a plane surface using wave fronts (qualitative idea); Interference-Young's double slit experiment and expression for fringe width, coherent sources and sustained interference of light; Diffraction-diffraction due to a single slit, width of central maximum, different between interference and diffraction; Resolving power of microscope and telescope; Polarisation, Plane polarized light, Brewster's law; Use of plane polarised light and polaroids.

 
     
 

Unit 7: Dual Nature of Matter and Radiations

 
 

Photo-electric effect, Einstein Photo-electric equation-particle nature of light, photo-cell, Matter waves-wave nature of particles, De-Broglie relation, Davison and Germer experiment.

 
     
 

Unit 8: Atomic Nucleus

 
 

Alpha-particle scattering experiment, size of the nucleus, composition of the nucleus-protons and neutrons. Nuclear instability – Radioactivity-Alpha, Beta and Gamma particles/rays and their properties, radioactive decay law, simple explanation o f a-Decay, ß-decay and ?-decay. Mass- energy relation, mass defect, Binding Energy per nucleon, its variation with mass number, Nature of nuclear forces, nuclear reaction-Nuclear fission and Nuclear fusion.

 
     
 

Unit 9: Solids and Semi-Conductor Devices

 
 

Energy bands in solids (qualitative ideas only), difference between metals, insulators and semiconductors using band theory; Intrinsic and extrinsic semi-conductors. P-n junction, Semi-conductor diode- characteristics in forward and reverse bias, diode as a rectifier, solar cell, photo-diode, LED, Diode Laser, zener diode as a voltage regulator; Junction transistor, transistor action, characteristics of a transistor; Transistor as an amplifier (common emitter configuration) and oscillator; Logic gates (OR, AND NOT NAND and NOR); Elementary ideas about I.C.

 
     
 

Unit X: Principles of Communication

 
 

Elementary idea of analog and digital communication; Need for modulation. Modulation-amplitude, frequency and pulse modulation; elementary idea about demodulation, Data transmission and retrieval – Fax and Modem.

Space Communication: Propagation of E.M. waves in atmosphere. Sky and space wave propagation. Satellite communication. Applications in Remote Sensing.

Line Communication: 2-wire lines, cables, telephone links; optical communication-optical fibre, optical sources –LED, Diode Lasers, optical detectors, elementary principle of light modulation.

 
     
 

PRACTICALS

 
 

SECTION-A

 
 

EXPERIMENTS

 
     
 
1. To establish current-voltage relationship (Ohm’s law) for a metallic conductor and find its resistance.
 
     
  2. To find resistance of a given wire using metre bridge/post office box and hence determine the specific resistance of its material.  
     
 
3. To verify the law of combination (series/parallel) of resistances using a metre bridge/post office box.
 
     
  4. To compare the emf’s of two given primary cells using potentiometer.  
     
 
5. To determine the internal resistance of given primary cell using potentiometer.
 
     
 
6. To determine resistance of a galvanometer by half-deflection method and to find its figure of merit.
 
     
 
7. To convert the given galvanometer (of known resistance of figure of merit) into an ammeter/voltmeter of desired range and to verify the same.
 
     
 
8. To find the frequency of the a.c. mains with a sonometer.
 
     
 

Activities

 
  1. To measure the resistance and impedance of an inductor with or without iron core.  
     
 
2.To measure resistance, voltage (AC/DC), current (AC) and check continuity of a given circuit using multimeter.
 
     
  3.To assemble a household circuit comprising three bulbs, three (on/off) switches, a fuse and a power source.  
     
  4.To assemble the components of a given electrical circuit.  
     
  5.To assemble given resistors in a suitable combination to obtain a desired resistance and verify its value with a multimeter.  
     
  6.To fine current by measuring voltage across a given resistor.  
     
 
7.To draw the diagram of a given open circuit comprising at least a battery, resistor/rheostat, key, ammeter and voltmeter. Mark the components that are not connected in proper order and correct the circuit and also the circuit diagram.
 
     
 

SECTION-B

 
 

Experiments

 
     
 
1. To find the value of a for different values of u in case of a concave mirror and to fine the focal length.
 
     
 
2. To find the focal length of a convex lens by plotting graphs between u and v or between 1/u and 1/v.
 
     
 
3.To find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
 
     
 
4.Find the focal length of a convex mirror, using a convex lens.
 
     
 
5.To determine angle of minimum deviation for a given prism by plotting a graph between the angle of incidence and the angle of deviation.
 
     
 
6.To determine refractive index of a glass slab using a travelling microscope.
 
     
 
7.To study the static and dynamic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and to determine its static and dynamic curves of a p-n junction diode in forward bias and to determine its static and dynamic resistances.
 
     
 
8.To draw the characteristic curves of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage.
 
     
 
9.To draw the characteristic curves of a zener diode and to determine its reverse break down voltage.
 
     
 

Activities

 
 
1.To study effect of intensity of intensity of light (by varying distance of the source) on an L.D.R.
 
     
 
2.To identify a diode, an LED, a transistor, and IC, a resistor and a capacitor from mixed collection of such items.
 
     
 
3.Use of multimeter to
(a) Use of multimeter to
(b) Distinguish between npn and pnp type transistors.
(c) Identify terminal of an IC.
(d) See the unidirectional flow of current in case of a diode and an LED.
(e) Check whether a given electronic component (e.g. diode, transistor or IC) is in working order.
 
     
  4.To observe refraction and lateral deviation of a beam of light incident obliquely on a glass slab.  
     
  5.To observe polarsation o f light using two polaroids.  
     
  6.To find refractive index of water using a concave mirror or convex lens.  
     
  7.To observe diffraction of light due to a thin slit between sharp edges of razor blades .  
     
 
8.To study the nature and size of the image formed by a convex lens using a candle and serene (for different distances of the candle form the lens).
 
     
 
9.To study the nature and size of the image of a candle formed by a concave mirror on a screen.
 
     
     
 
Syllabus
  CBSE : 9, 10, 11, 12
   
  ICSE : 9, 10
   
  ISC : 11, 12
   
  IIT, AIEEE, PMT, CBSE-PMT
   
  IAS, PCS, UGC-CSIR ,IFS
   
  Physics olympiad
   
   
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